“Jug-Handled Justice” describes railroad president Franklin Gowen’s usurpation of Pennsylvania's criminal justice system for the duration of the “Molly” trials. At this essay's conclusion John Elliott, the attorney who helped secure John Kehoe's 1979 posthumous pardon, gives a summation of Gowen’s actions.
“The ‘Mollies’ Were Also School Directors” gives the background of five Hibernians prosecuted as “Mollies” who served in office as school directors. This piece also documents a resurgent tide of nativist feeling that manifested in the northeastern United States in the early 1870s.
Newspapers archived through the Library of Congress “Chronicling America” website helped inform this body of work.
This post was revised on September 1, 2017.